Research and Education Evaluation of esthetic parameters related to a single implant restoration by laypeople and dentists

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Available online 19 November 2019

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry


Statement of problem

Currently available assessment tools for evaluating the esthetic outcome of implant restorations consist of objective indices created for dentists. The investigation of esthetic parameters according to the patient’s perspective is lacking.


The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate and compare the importance of different soft-tissue and restoration-related esthetic parameters for patients and clinicians.

Material and methods

A photoediting software program (Photoshop CC; Adobe Corp) was used to produce 10 photographs with modified smiles from the original photograph by altering 1 parameter of the pink esthetic score and white esthetic score (PES/WES) at a time. A total of 120 participants were recruited in the study, including 40 laypeople, 40 prosthodontists, and 40 periodontists. A total of 440 visual analog scale (VAS) values were obtained for each group to record participants’ subjective esthetic assessments of all photographs (10 modified and 1 original photograph). Repeated-measures ANOVA and post hoc mean comparison (t grouping) were used to identify whether the individual alteration on the PES and WES indices was significant for each group.


For the laypeople, color (hue and value) appeared to be the most important parameter. After color, the order of importance was as follows: root convexity along with soft-tissue color and texture, level of facial mucosa, distal papilla, mesial papilla, translucency or characterization, surface texture, and tooth form. For the periodontists, color (hue and value) was also the most important parameter, but it was not separable from a cluster of other parameters: level of facial mucosa, root convexity along with soft-tissue color and texture, mesial papilla, and distal papilla. For the prosthodontists, color (hue and value) and level of facial mucosa were the most important parameters affecting esthetic assessment, followed by root convexity along with soft-tissue color and texture, mesial papilla, and distal papilla.


All groups graded color (hue and value) as the most important parameter affecting the esthetic outcome and the original unaltered photograph as the most esthetically pleasing image. All participants (laypeople and dental specialists) appeared to be able to perceive the same 5 parameters including color (hue and value), level of facial mucosa, mesial papilla, distal papilla, and root convexity along with soft-tissue color and texture that are negatively affecting esthetic outcomes. Except for color (hue and value), restoration-related esthetic parameters had a lesser effect on the overall esthetic assessments for all groups.
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