Available online 6 November 2019
Statement of problem
Candida albicans has been implicated in denture stomatitis, and this effect is exacerbated by nicotine exposure. However, studies have also suggested that caffeine exposure inhibits the growth of C. albicans. The interaction effects of nicotine and caffeine are not yet clear on the growth of C. albicans.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of caffeine on metabolic activity and biofilm formation of C. albicans growing on acrylic denture resin while simultaneously exposed to nicotine and, if an effect were to be identified, whether this effect would vary depending on the caffeine concentration.
Material and methods
A total of 240 acrylic resin specimens were divided into 2 equal groups (120 each). Specimens in one group were processed to measure C. albicans metabolic activity, and those in the other group were processed to measure C. albicans biofilm attachment. Ten subgroups (n=12) were established within each group with different concentration combinations of nicotine and caffeine to test the interaction effect. The first subgroup was designed as a negative control, containing 0 mg/mL of nicotine and caffeine. The following subgroups all contained 8.00 mg/mL of nicotine, and the caffeine concentrations were prepared at the following 9 levels: 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00, 8.00, 16.00, and 32.00 mg/mL. Metabolic activity was measured by using a 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-carboxanilide (XTT) assay. Biofilm attachment was measured by using spiral plating and calculated in terms of the number of colony-forming units (CFUs)/mL. Descriptive statistics and a 2-way ANOVA were conducted to determine whether the concentrations of nicotine and caffeine used affected the biofilm attachment and metabolic activity of C. albicans (α=.05).
The presence of 8 mg/mL of nicotine increased the metabolic activity and biofilm formation of C. albicans. When compared with the 0 mg/mL of caffeine and 8.00 mg/mL of nicotine group, caffeine from 1.00 to 4.00 mg/mL significantly increased C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity. Caffeine at 16.00 and 32.00 mg/mL significantly decreased C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity in the presence of 8 mg/mL of nicotine. Caffeine from 1.00 to 32.00 mg/mL significantly decreased the biofilm formation of C. albicans in the presence of 8 mg/mL of nicotine.
The presence of 8 mg/mL of nicotine alone increased the metabolic activity and biofilm formation of C. albicans. In the presence of 8 mg/mL of nicotine with different caffeine concentrations, the results suggest that, overall, caffeine at higher concentrations (16 and 32 mg/mL) inhibited the metabolic activity and biofilm formation of C. albicans on acrylic denture resin most.
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